Though its name sound quite similar to nicotine found in tobacco, the molecules are not related.*
*Linus Pauling Institute – Micronutrient Information Center. Niacin. Retrieved October, 2016.http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/vitamins
NR was first identified in 1940’s, however it was not available as an ingredient until recently. Earlier forms of vitamin B3 were discovered in the late 1930’s and they addressed various health issues such as pellagra. Since that time, NAD has been more widely studied in the scientific community and the role of NR as NAD precursor in humans has become better understood.
Over a decade of pre-clinical research has been conducted on NR with the first human clinical study published recently. There are at least 13 additional human clinical trials planned and/or currently underway.
NR, nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are all recognized forms of Niacin or Vitamin B3. They have not been tested in combination. As with any dietary supplement, it is recommended that you consult your qualified health care professional with any questions.
NR has been studied in humans in the dose ranges from 100mg -1000mg per day. There is no Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) for NR (nicotinamide riboside). The current science supporting NAD upregulation suggests a single daily dose as low as 100mg provided a significant increase in NAD levels.
NR is a naturally occurring nutrient found in trace amounts in milk.1 Other milk-derived products such as whey and yeast-containing foods are also presumed as natural sources of NR.2 But you would need to consume around 100,000 glasses of milk3 to achieve the human study quantities proven to significantly boost NAD.
The NR available as an ingredient today is a nature identical, synthesized version, meaning that is it is identical structurally and functionally to naturally occurring NR.
1. Trammel, S. A. (2016). Nicotinamide riboside is a major NAD+ precursor vitamin in cow milk. Journal of Nutrition, 146(5), 957–63. 2-Chi Y & Suave AA (2013) Nicotinamide riboside, a trace nutrient in foods, is a vitamin B3 with effects on energy metabolism and neuroprotection. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care 16(6):657-661.
2. Chi Y & Suave AA (2013) Nicotinamide riboside, a trace nutrient in foods, is a vitamin B3 with effects on energy metabolism and neuroprotection. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care 16(6):657-661.
3. Trammel, S. A. (2016). Nicotinamide riboside is a major NAD+ precursor vitamin in cow milk. Journal of Nutrition, 146(5), 957–63.
In two clinical trials with intakes up to 1000 mg/day, no clinically meaningful adverse effects attributed to the consumption of NR were reported. Although adverse side effects were not attributed to NR ingestion during clinical trial. As with if any form of supplementation, if you experience any prolonged discomfort or side effects discontinue use and consult your health care provider.
NR has been granted NDI (New Dietary Ingredient) status by the US FDA. NR also has GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status, which defines the levels at which it can be incorporated into various foods and beverages.
Rigorous testing in numerous in vitro and in vivo toxicology studies has confirmed the safety of nicotinamide riboside at the recommended dose level of 3 mg/kg of body weight per day or 180 mg/day for an adult. Safety of intake has been validated in two clinical trials of human subjects consuming up to 1000 mg/day as a single dose and at 1000 mg/day for 6 weeks.